Vairo canābhisaṃbodhi or Vairocanā bhisaṃbodhi-tantra. widely known as the Mahāvairocana-sūtra), it will hereafter be referred to as. The Mahāvairocana Tantra is the first true Buddhist tantra, the earliest comprehensive manual of tantric Buddhism. It was probably composed in the middle of the. The Mahāvairocana Tantra (traditional Chinese: 大毘盧遮那成佛神變加持經; ; pinyin: Dà Pílúzhēnà Chéngfó Shénbiàn Jiāchí Jīng; also known as 大日经 Da ri .
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In Tibet it is considered to be a member of the Carya class of tantras. Both are also part of the Tendai school.
There are translations from both into English. It is possible that the Sanskrit text was taken to China circa by the Chinese pilgrim Wu-xing.
A major commentary by Buddhaguhya was written in about and is preserved in Tibetan. Hodge translates it into English alongside the text itself. Attached here and there are doctrinal passages, and sadhana practices which relate back to the main mandalas.
The following outline is based on Hodge’s translation of the Tibetan version of the Sutra.
The Chinese version has differences in the order of the chapters. Chapter 2 of the sutra also contains four precepts, called the samayathat form the basic precepts esoteric Buddhist practitioners must follow:. Instead it comes directly from Mahavairocana. The lineage then being, according to the Shingon tradition:. This is also the understanding of Enlightenment found in Yogacara Buddhism.
To achieve this mhavairocana of non-duality, it is necessary to recognise one’s own mind. Writing on the Mahavairocana SutraBuddhist scholar and translator of that scripture, Stephen Hodge, comments: Mahavairocana Tantra ] speaks of knowing your mind as it truly is, it means that you are to know the inherent natural state of the mind by eliminating the split into a perceiving subject and perceived objects which normally occurs in the world and is wrongly thought to be real.
This also corresponds to the Yogacara definition We may further elucidate the meaning of Perfect Enlightenment and hence of the intrinsic nature of the mind by correlating yantra [which Buddhist commentator on the Mahavairocana Sutra ,] Buddhaguhya, treats as synonyms.
For example, he defines emptiness sunyata as suchness tathata and says that suchness is the intrinsic nature svabhava of the mind which is Enlightenment bodhi-citta.
Moreover, he frequently uses the terms suchness tathata and Suchness-Awareness tathata-jnana interchangeably. But since Awareness jnana is non-dual, Suchness-Awareness is not so much the Awareness of Suchness, but the Awareness which is Suchness.
In other words, the term Suchness-Awareness is functionally equivalent to Enlightenment. Finally, it must not be forgotten that this Suchness-Awareness or Perfect Enlightenment is Mahavairocana [the Primal Buddha, uncreated and forever existent].
In other words, the mind in its intrinsic nature is Mahavairocana, whom one “becomes” or vice-versa when one is perfectly enlightened. The text also speaks of how all things can be accomplished once ‘non-dual union with emptiness’ is attained.
Yet ultimately even emptiness needs to be transcended, to the extent that it is not mahavairoxana vacuous emptiness, but the expanse of the mind of Buddha, Buddhic Awareness and Buddha-realms, all of which know of no beginning and no arising – as Stephen Hodge points mahavairocaha. Finally, though one has realized the true emptiness of the individual and phenomena, one does not yet realize that the natural state of mind is the Tathagata’s inherent Ttantra and that it is the all-pervasive Body of Vairocana with all the manifested Buddha realms.
Therefore one must transcend even emptiness with the emptiness of emptiness, when it is seen that the mind is primordially unborn and unarisen. The tanfra later reinforces the notion that Emptiness is not mere inert nothingness but is precisely the unlocalised locus where Vairocana resides. Vajrapani salutes the Buddha Vairocana with the following words:. I salute you who are the source of Enlightenment! Emptiness in Buddhist discourse usually means the flow of causation and result – the arising of causes and conditions – but in this scripture, Mahavairocana Buddha declares himself to be separate from all causes and conditions and without defect – truly mighty:.
I who am mighty have been renowned as the Great Hero. I directly realized that there is no arising, and abandoned mahavajrocana perceptual range of words; I became free from all faults, and separated from causes and conditions. Mandala — A mandala is a spiritual and ritual symbol in Hinduism and Buddhism, representing the universe. In common use, mandala has become a term for any diagram, chart or geometric pattern that represents the cosmos metaphysically or symbolically. The basic form of most mandalas is a square with four gates mahavxirocana a circle with a center point, mahavakrocana gate is in the general shape of a T.
Mandalas often exhibit radial balance. The term appears in the Rigveda as the name of the sections of the work, a yantra is a two- or three-dimensional geometric composition used in sadhanas, puja or meditative tabtra.
It is considered to represent the abode of the deity, tqntra yantra is unique and calls the deity into the presence of the practitioner through the elaborate symbolic geometric designs. Yantras are not representations, but are lived, experiential, nondual realities, as Khanna describes, Despite its cosmic meanings a yantra is a reality lived.
The Rajamandala was formulated by the Indian author Kautilya in his work on politics and it describes circles of friendly and enemy states surrounding the kings state.
In historical, social and political sense, the mandala is also employed to denote traditional Southeast Asian political formations. It was adopted by 20th century Western historians from ancient Indian political discourse as a means of avoiding the term state in the conventional sense, empires such as Bagan, Ayutthaya, Champa, Khmer, Srivijaya and Majapahit are known as mandala in this sense.
The mandala can be found in the form of the stupa and in the Atanatiya Sutta in the Digha Nikaya, Mandalas are traditionally found in large amounts in Buddhist Monasteries all over mahavairocanz world. They are also a key part of Anuttarayoga Tantra meditation practices, the mandala can be shown to represent in visual form the core essence of the Vajrayana teachings.
The amhavairocana is a microcosm representing various divine powers at work in the universe, the mandala represents the mahaairocana of the Pure Land, Enlightened mind. A mandala can also represent the universe, which is traditionally depicted with Mount Meru as the axis mundi in the center. In the mandala, the circle of fire usually symbolises wisdom.
Inside these rings lie the walls of the palace itself, specifically a place populated by deities. One well-known type of mandala is the mandala tantta the Tajtra Buddhas, such Buddhas are depicted depending on the school of Buddhism, and even the specific purpose of the mandala.
A mahavairocna mandala of this type is that of the Five Wisdom Buddhas, when paired with another mandala depicting the Five Wisdom Kings, this forms the Mandala of the Two Realms. Vairocana — Vairocana is a celestial buddha who is often interpreted, in texts like the Flower Garland Sutra, as the Dharma Body of the historical Buddha.
Each flower supports a hundred million mahavairocama, in each world a Sakyamuni Buddha appears, all are seated beneath a Bodhi-tree, all simultaneously attain Buddhahood. All these innumerable Buddhas have Vairocana as their original body and he is also mentioned in the Flower Garland Sutra, however, the doctrine of Vairocana Buddha is based largely on the teachings of the Mahavairocana Sutra and to a lesser degree the Vajrasekhara Sutra.
In the case of Shingon and Hua-Yen schools, Vairocana is the central figure, as Xavier learned more about the religious nuances of the word, he substituted the term Deusu, which he derived from tnatra Latin and Portuguese Deus.
The Shingon Buddhist monk, Dohan, regarded the two great Buddhas, Amida and Vairocana, as one and the same Dharmakaya Buddha and as the nature at the core of all beings.
The Singapore Buddha Sasana Society (Sakya Tenphel Ling)
With regard to Emptiness, the size and brilliance of Vairocana statues serve as a reminder that all conditioned existence is empty. In Java, Indonesia, the 9th-century Mendut temple near Borobudur in Magelang was dedicated to Dhyani Tantrs Vairocana, built by the Sailendra dynasty, the temple featured a three-meter tall stone statue of Dhyani Buddha Vairocana, seated and performing the Dharmachakra mudra.
The statue is flanked with statues of Boddhisatva Avalokitesvara and Boddhisatva Vajrapani, the Spring Temple Buddha of Lushan County, Henan, China, with a height of meters, is the tallest statue in the world. Elements of Tantric Buddhism can be traced back to groups of wandering yogis called mahasiddhas.
These yogic maahvairocana came together in tantric feasts often in sacred sites and places which included dancing, singing, sex rites and it is interesting to note that at least two of the Mahasiddhas given in the Buddhist literature are actually names for Shaiva Nath saints who practiced Hatha Yoga.
According to Schumann, a mahwvairocana called Sahaja-siddhi developed in the 8th century in Bengal and it was dominated by long-haired, wandering yogis called mahasiddhas who openly challenged and ridiculed the Buddhist establishment. The Mahasiddhas ttantra siddhis, magical powers such as flight and Extrasensory perception as well as liberation, earlier Mahayana sutras already contained some elements which are emphasized in tantrx Tantras, such as mantras and dharani.
Vajrayana developed a large corpus of texts called the Buddhist Tantras, some of which can be traced to at least the 7th century CE, the dating of the tantras is a difficult, indeed an impossible task according to David Snellgrove.
Mahavairocana – Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia
Later monastic Vajrayana Buddhists reinterpreted and internalized these radically transgressive and taboo practices as metaphors, the Kalachakra tantra developed in the 10th century. It tabtra farthest removed from the earlier Buddhist traditions, and incorporates concepts of messianism, various classes of Vajrayana literature developed as a result of royal courts sponsoring both Mahavairoacna and Saivism.
According to Alexis Sanderson, the Vajrayana Yogini-tantras draw extensively from Shaiva Bhairava tantras classified as Vidyapitha, there is even direct borrowing of passages from Saiva texts. The Guhyasiddhi of Padmavajra, an associated with the Guhyasamaja tradition, prescribes acting as a Shaiva guru and initiating members into Saiva Siddhanta scriptures.
Tantga major difference seen by Vajrayana thinkers is Tantras superiority due mahavairocqna being a vehicle to liberation containing many skillful methods of tantric ritual. As Snellgrove notes, this doctrine is also present in Asangas Mahayana-sutra-alamkara-karika and therefore it is possible that he was aware of Tantric techniques. Buddhism — Buddhism is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha.
Buddhism originated in India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars, Theravada and Mahayana. In Mahaavairocana the ultimate goal is the attainment of the state of Mahavaiorcana, achieved by practicing the Noble Eightfold Path, thus escaping what is seen as a cycle of suffering.
Theravada has a following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Buddhism, Shingon, rather than Nirvana, Mahayana instead aspires to Buddhahood via the bodhisattva path, a state wherein one remains in the cycle of rebirth to help other beings reach awakening. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian siddhas, may be viewed as a branch or merely a part of Mahayana.
Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth century India, is practiced in regions surrounding the Himalayas, Tibetan Buddhism aspires to Buddhahood or rainbow body.
Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of Buddha, the details of Buddhas tatra are mentioned in many early Buddhist texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini gardens. Some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, Buddha was moved by the innate suffering of humanity.
He meditated on this alone tantda a period of time, in various ways including asceticism, on the nature of suffering. He reached mahavairkcana, discovering what Buddhists call the Middle Way, as an enlightened being, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his teaching the Dharma he had discovered. Dukkha is a concept of Buddhism and part of its Four Noble Truths doctrine.
It can be translated as incapable of satisfying, the unsatisfactory nature, the Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism, we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which is magavairocana, incapable of satisfying and painful.
Tantra — Tantra is the esoteric traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism that co-developed most likely about the middle of 1st millennium CE. The term tantra, in the Indian traditions, also means any systematic broadly applicable text, maahvairocana, system, method, instrument, in Hinduism, the tantra tradition is most often associated with its goddess tradition called Shaktism, followed by Shaivism and Vaishnavism.
Tantra as genre of literature in Hinduism have been influential to its arts, icons, Hindu puja, temples and iconography are tantric in nature. Tantra literally means loom, warp, weave, the connotation of the word tantra to mean an esoteric practice or religious ritualism is a colonial era European invention. The term is based on the metaphor of weaving, states Ron Barrett and it implies interweaving of traditions and teachings as threads into a text, technique or practice.
The word appears in the hymns of the Rigveda such as in In these and post-Vedic texts, the meaning of Tantra is that which is principal or essential part, main point, model, framework. The various contextual meaning of the word Tantra varies with the Indian text, the earliest definitions and expositions on Tantra come from the ancient texts of Panini, Patanjali and the literature of the language-focussed, ritual-oriented Mimamsa school of Hindu philosophy.
The word tantra, states Patanjali, means principal, main, Patanjali also offers a semantic definition of Tantra, stating that it is structural rules, standard procedures, centralized guide or knowledge in any field that applies to many elements. The ancient Mimamsa school of Hinduism uses the term tantra extensively, for example, When an action or a thing, once complete, becomes beneficial in several matters to one person, or to many people, that is known as Tantra.
Medieval texts present their own definitions of Tantra, in modern era scholarship, Tantra has been studied as an esoteric practice and ritualistic religion, sometimes referred to as Tantrism. There is wide gap between what Tantra means to its followers, and what Tantra has been represented or perceived tanhra since colonial era writers began commenting on Tantra, many definitions of Tantra have been proposed ever since, and there is no universally accepted definition of Tantra.
According to David N.